Rare Earth Elements

1. The rare earth trace elements

– Rare earth elements and rare earth metals, according to IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), is a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table of Mendeleev called scandium, yltry and 15 (fifteen) elements of the lanthanum group and in contrast to the name (excluding promethi), which is high in the Earth.

                                                                                       Rare earth ore

– Rare earth elements can be found in sediment layers, ore mines and black sand. Rare earths are often not named in scientific arrangements. However, rare earths are still classified as alloys and other compounds, precisely rare earth magnets from different forms of magnets.

                                               Localization of rare earth trace elements in the periodic table Mendeleev

– In Vietnam, according to geological scientists, rare earth reserves of about 10 million tons are distributed scattered in ore mines in the North West and the form of black sand distributed along the coastal provinces of Central Vietnam. .

2. Effect of rare earth micro-organisms on plants

The amount of rare earth that is added to the soil for the crop, or the supply in the form of foliar spray at the right dose and concentration, will have some great effects:
– Increases plant photosynthesis capacity by 20 – 80%, dramatically increasing productivity at very low cost.
– Increasing the metabolism, increasing the absorption capacity of macroporous fertilizer (reducing the loss of N, P, K fertilizers), thus reducing the fertilizer cost.
– Increases root growth, thereby increasing the tolerance to drought
– Increasing resistance should reduce the possibility of pests
– less toxic when used, rare earth residue is not much different from the control
– Enhance the flavor of agricultural products.
– Increases the ability to sprout, sprout, increase the ability to produce fruit and especially increase the sugar content, increasing both the form and quality of products.
Note: When using rare earths in large amounts, the yield is not increased much, even decreasing the yield (due to the plant poisoning) and starting to increase the rare earth residue in the tree.

3. In agriculture – Why replenish rare earth for plants and soil.
– Since 1878, the presence of rare earth micro-organisms in plants (radishes, tobacco, grapes …) has been observed.
– So during the growth process, the tree has absorbed rare earth from the soil.
In the process of intensive farming, only fertilizers (N, P, K) and some other trace elements: Zn, Cu, Mo, Mn, B …
Very few know what rare earths are, and therefore more are unaware of the addition of rare earth elements to plants and soil. Growing soil is becoming increasingly lacking in rare earth trace elements.
It is therefore necessary to provide rare earth minerals (in the form of fertilizer preparations) to return the soil to rare earth elements necessary for the development of the crop.
4. Some concrete evidence of the benefits of rare earths in crop production.

                            The roots of the control tea tree (left) and tea roots are supplemented with rare earth (right)

                                                                             Some rare earth microbes

5. Major applications of rare earth in industry
– In metallurgy: Deoxidizing, sulfur and other harmful ingredients

– Production of flints, igniters

– Catalysis in petrochemical processing, automobile exhaust treatment

– Used in the glass industry, colorizing agent, polishing powder advanced

– Produce permanent magnets

– Production of superconductors, ceramic, porcelain and zirconia

– Make luminaire for color TV: ceria + zirconia

– As a hydrogen storage medium, secondary batteries

– Making laser materials, optical fibers, optical glass

– Forced materials

– As a substitute for very toxic Cadimium pigments

6. Research on rare earths in the world and in Vietnam

– Since 1972, China has started to research rare earth products in fertilizer.

– In 1997, there were 160 factories in China, producing 5 million tons of rare earth fertilizers per year, using 6.68 million hectares, increasing crop yield by 10 – 20%

– Some research institutes in Vietnam have also studied the use of rare earth-fertilising fertilizers, but these studies are fragmentary, uncoordinated and linked. There have been some results but no development. wide area

– Institute of Radiation Technology also conducted research:

+ 1 base subject (1997),

+ 1 ministry level project (2001 – 2002),

+ 1 ministry level project (2003 – 2004),

+ 1 ministry-level production project (2004 – 2005)

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