Organic matter (HC) – Organic matter (OM)

1. The importance of organic matter?

– Reserve nutrients for plants

– Food source of soil organisms

– Provide CEC of land

– Increase soil water holding capacity

– Reduce Al toxicity when soil pH is low

– Improve soil structure (but do not change the structure)

2. A summary of organic matter, organic humus and soil fertility assessment scale.

Soil organic matter:

– All organic compounds present in the soil are called organic matter of the soil.

– Organic soil can be split into 2 parts:

(1) The organic remains are not resolved (roots, trunk, leaves, carcasses) remain the same.

(2) Decomposed organic matter. The following organic matter can be divided into two groups: organic (OM)

+ Group of organic compounds other than humus, there are more simple compounds such as protit, glutamic acid, lipid, lignin, tannin, wax, plastic, ester, alcohol, organic acid, aldehyde. 10% – 15% organic matter but very important role in soil and plants.

+ Group of humus compounds: The group of humus compounds consists of polymeric organic compounds with complex structure, which accounts for 85 – 90% of decomposed organic matter, consisting of 3 main components humic acid, fulvic acid and humic compounds.

                                                                     Composition of organic matter in soil

                                                                       Organic decomposition cycle

Assessment of organic and humus quality in soil:

– Organic humus substances are considered as a criterion for evaluating soil fertility.

Quantity: Mud = C% x 100/58 = C% X 1.724

– plain land:

+ Humus: <1%

+ Average humus: 1 – 2%

+ Rich humus:> 2%

– Mountainous land

+ Very poor humus: <1%

+ Humus: 1 – 2%

+ Average humus: 2 – 4%

+ Rich humus: 4 – 8%

+ Humus is very rich:> 8%

– Organic matter and humus fluctuate between types of soil, generally the agricultural land has low organic content and humus. Most of the hilly land of our country has organic content from the poor, about 20% of land area has very poor organic content. The highest concentrations of organic matter and humus are upland soils, year-round cloudy cover, or marshy year-round wetland, which is OM> 6%. The most organic soil is sandy soil or degraded soil.

Resolution of organic matter (C: N):

– The C: N ratios are widely used as an indicator of the rate of decomposition of organic matter after they are applied to the soil. Organic substances with a high C: N ratio such as 40% Carbon and 0.5% Nitrogen will dissipate more slowly than organic C: N, such as 40% Carbon and 4% nitrogen.

– Organic matter in the soil will increase if organic added has a high C: N ratio, because there is not enough nitrogen for decomposition to be effective. Moreover, the nitrogen content instead of mineral mineralization is reduced by bacterial nitrogen immobilization, as organic additives do not have enough nitrogen to grow.

– Organic additive with low C: N ratio will be decomposed completely and quickly with mineralized nitrogen. Some nitrogen after mineralization can be reused to decompose organic substances with a high C: N ratio that have not previously been decomposed. Therefore, the amount of organic matter in the environment will sometimes be reduced by the decomposition of organic matter with low C: N ratios added.

C/N = organic matter resolution

< 8: masterpiece

> 12: weak

8 -12: medium

10: balance

Mud/N: 12 – 16

H/F: humic acid/fulvic acid > 1

The speed of decomposition of organic matter depends

– Physical and chemical properties of organic materials

– Temperature, humidity

– Air permeability of soil

– Type and amount of soil organisms

3. The effect of organic humus on plants:

Organic matter is the most precious part of the soil, it is not only a nutrient storehouse for plants, but it can also regulate many soil properties in a good direction, greatly affecting soil and soil productivity.

The role of organic matter is so great that the soil organic matter always occupies one of the central locations of soil and has gained the attention of many domestic and foreign researchers.

Organic humus in the soil affects the growth and productivity of plants through the physical, chemical and biochemical characteristics of soil such as:

Organic mulch itself supplies protein, phosphorus, sulfur and trace elements slowly to plants.

Organic humus is considered as a nutrient retention buffer from chemical fertilizers, which is important for limiting the loss of excreta after fertilization, otherwise it is evaporated or washed away. These nutrients kept by organic humus are then released to the plant when needed.

Organic humus improves the structure of the soil, making the soil more porous, so that the soil becomes more open, facilitating the movement of water in the soil, and retaining more water.

– Organic humus increases the soil microbial population, including beneficial microorganisms.

The effects of humus on the growth of plants are not only in these ways but also in stimulating the growth of plants. This stimulation is due to the presence of functional substances such as organic growth regulators contained in organic humus, with similar activity to IAA, Gibberelin, and cytokinin. Or substances that inhibit auxin degradation. as:

– Organic humus stimulates seed germination and growth of seedlings. The role of humus in promoting seed germination and the development of seedlings have been studied extensively.

– Organic humus stimulates root formation and root growth. Depending on the quality and quantity of humus, the level of stimulation varies.

Organic humus stimulates the growth of buds.

4. Some sources of organic fertilizer or fertilizer directly to plants:

4.1. Organic humus from perennial ponds (peat): formed by the accumulation and decay of incomplete plant residues under continuous anaerobic conditions. Including grass, mop, spleen, bush, woodwood, combined with geological tectonics, sedimentation, sedimentation deposition including woody plants, making organic accumulation layers and peat.

Organic matter according to geological features, vegetation cover, anaerobic digestion time, after treatment (dried, crushed sieve …) is temporarily classified according to the following criteria:

                                                                                       Organic peat

+ Peat grade 1: organic: 30 – 35% – Color: black coal – Fineness: through 3.5 mm sieve – Humidity: 20 – 30%

+ Peat grade 2: Organic: 17 – 25% – Color: light brown and brown – Fineness: through 3.5 mm sieve – Humidity: 20 – 30%

+ Peat grade 3: organic: less than 16% – Color: dark brown – Fineness: 5 mm sieve – Humidity: 20 – 35%.

With the humus we can apply directly to plants, mixed with soil, used as raw materials to produce compost, mineral organic fertilizers, microorganic organic fertilizer …

4.2. Humus residue from sugar mills:

The remaining sugar residues (bagasse, sludge, lime and molasses) were the by-products of sugar mills accounting for 29 to 38% of the sugarcane volume, of which sugarcane bagasse accounted for the largest proportion (25 ÷ 30% of sugarcane volume).

+ With the total content of organic matter is not decomposed from 35 to 45%, mulch bagasse must be decomposed before applying to the plant.

+ Or use materials to process microorganic organic fertilizers: Addition of cellulose degradation microorganism, deodorizing microorganism, fermentation fermentation, supplementation with nitrogen fixation microorganism, phosphorus dissolution, mineral supplement Macro, micronutrients, humic acids, etc. Organic matter content in finished products is 10-30%.

4.3. Coarse coffees: organic content > 30%

                                                                        Unprocessed coffee pods

It should be composted, should not be applied directly to plants, low efficiency and easy to infect plants.

+ Used as raw materials for the production of bio-organic fertilizers: To kill pathogens, to increase the decomposition of plant carcasses, to increase the organic content, to increase the viability of useful microorganisms in organic fertilizers. , antagonistic fungus supplement, mineral supplement.

4.4. The following compounds have been extracted from high-content humus: Humic acid, Fulvic acid, Amino acid (Amino acid) …: Concentration of humic acid concentration from 20 to 80%.

4.5. Some organic sources, traditional organic fertilizers:

Manure: The advantage is that it contains the full range of nutritional elements, multi, medium and micro.

Garbage: This fertilizer is made from straw; stalks of corn, beans, peanuts, peanut husks, husks …

Green manure: the common name for fresh plants or leaves is incubated or buried directly to the ground to fertilize the field.

Oil: The residue left after the seeds have pressed the oil.

Ash is the residue of some things after burning and is usually gray. In agriculture, some plant materials such as cassava, cotton, maize, coconut leaves, sawdust, etc., have a high rate of ash and nutrients after burning.


2 thoughts on “Organic matter (HC) – Organic matter (OM)

  1. Edwin Selma says:

    An intriguing discussion will probably be worth comment. I think that you can write more on this topic, it might not certainly be a taboo subject but generally persons are there are not enough to communicate in on such topics. To another location. Cheers

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