Manganese (Mn) – Manganese

The manganese cultivates manganese dioxide 2 Mn2+ and in the form of manganese organic complexes.

Plants do not use four Mn4 + valence manganese.

Mn forms in soil:

– Mn2+ in solution

– Mn2+ complex with organic matter

– Mn oxides

– Very low solubility: 10 -12 – 10 -15 M

– pH dependent activity

– Sensitive to redox – soil changes from wet to dry

– High solubility in wetland

– Can wash away under this condition

– May be toxic to plants, especially when soil pH is low

– Chelates are an important form to maintain the useful Mn content and move to the roots

– Interactions: Cu, Fe, Zn, can reduce the usefulness of Mn

1. The impact of manganese on the physiological biochemistry of plants:

Manganese is known as an oxidizer of plants.

Manganese affects the biochemical physiological processes of the following crops:

– The process of mineral nutrition (nutrient uptake, nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction)

– respiratory process (oxidation, Krep cycle)

– photosynthesis (CO2 reduction)

– The synthesis of organic matter (synthesis of gluxite, nucleic acid and growth regulators)

– The transport process, the evapotranspiration and the metabolism of gluxite, the growth and development (germination, stemming and flowering) the tolerance of drought.

Mn affects the synthesis of many substances such as carbohydrates, protein compounds, organic acids, pigments, vitamins, auxin and enzymes.

Mn plays a very important role in the formation of chlorophyll and promotes the activity of many yeasts.

It has been observed that many cases of manganese are typical: on the soil where vegetables are planted by drains, on landscaped fields are added lime. Manganese deficiency is less common in acid soils and in anaerobic rice production, which often occurs in alkali soils, acidic soils after lime, mineral soil, and organic soil. On these soils, Mn ions in the form of divalent 3 and dichlorobenzene are difficult to dissolve or combine with organic matter to form insoluble compounds.

In alkaline conditions, Mn after aspiration is also able to convert to oxidized form and condensed in the conduction circuit.

Expression of manganese deficient crops

Manganese deficiency can occur with gray or dark spots around the leaf margin. Just like iron, the symptoms of manganese deficiency often occur on limestone grounds because when manganese is applied, manganese becomes insoluble.

Performing soil acidification as mentioned in the Iron section will improve this situation considerably, or use the manganese sulphate as a soluble form for application to the soil. In contrast, Manganese poisoning often occurs in acidic soils because Manganese become dissolved quickly, so Manganese will overlap.

                                          Expression of plant deficiency of magnesium expressed in tomato leaves

Manganese deficiency: Leaves lose color of blue, tendons and dark blue tendons form squares, yellow spots and necrotic spots, appearing near the young leaf.

Also because manganese are very mobile, manganese deficiency is usually first manifested in young leaves. In broadleaf trees, yellow leaves also have green veins. In the orchid this phenomenon also appears but not clear.

                                                                   Symptoms of manganese deficiency in rice

Expression of Magan plant (manganese poisoning):

It should be noted that manganese toxicity is more common than manganese deficiency. This phenomenon usually occurs in alkaline soils and is associated with iron poisoning, acid anaerobic acid.

The pumpkin has symptoms of manganese poisoning, the lesions formed between the veins of the leaf blotches forming together and gradually turning brown.

Cause: Manganese poisoning is caused by the soil pH below 5.6. At normal pH, manganese is retained by the colloidal particles, when it rains down to a low pH, Magan will be able to move plants into very high concentrations of the plant. Manganese content of 800 – 900 ppm or more in leaf tissue is usually toxic. Damage from manganese poisoning can be very severe and lasts the whole week. Remedy by liming the soil.

Mn deficiency or deficiency of vitamin C in cabbage. When the lime content of manganese in the grass was reduced, the grass was reduced to oestrus, and the lamb was significantly reduced.

2. Types of raw materials for manganese fertilizer production:

2.1. Manganese sulphate (MnSO4.4H2O): Mn: 24%; S: 14%

Light pink powder, water-soluble, boiling point 700oC

2.2. Manganese Chloride (MnCl2.4H2O)

Crystalline color (humidity)

Composition MnCl2: 63.59%, H2O content: 36.41; Mn content: 27.76%; Concentration Cl: 35.83%

2.3. Manure of Manganese Chelate (nEDTA-Mn-13)

Chemical name: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, manganese disodium complex

Chemical formula: EDTA-MnNa2 (C10H12N2O8MnNa2)

Product form: White powder

Mn chelated content: 13%

pH at 1% concentration: 6 – 7

2.4. Compound Manganese Chelate (nEDTA-Mn-6)

Chemical formula: EDTA-MnK2

Mn content chelated: 6%

pH (at 1% concentration): 6.0 – 8.0

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