Kali – Potassium

1. The effect of potassium fertilizers on plants:

Potassium is not really a constituent of plant tissue, but plants need to be fed a large amount of potassium to all parts. Potassium affects. Water control in the process of evaporation from plants.

– When low light potassium stimulates photosynthesis, increase resistance to trees.

– Potassium fertilizer helps plants absorb more protein, acts as a catalyst for the production of sugar, fiber and oil, enhance the disease resistance, cold and drought tolerance of trees. Potassium helps increase penetration through the cell membrane, adjust pH, water content in the stomata.

– It should be noted that potassium soluble, easy to wash away during heavy rain and flooded, so in the tropics with high rainfall people often use more potassium.

Activating most of the enzymes in plant life, enzymes tend to be concentrated in the growth tissues of the growth sites, which help the plant to grow tops, helping to sprout and split many branches.

– An important role in cell proliferation and stomatal activation.

– Applying K for the plants increases the rate of photosynthesis, stiffness and water absorption, especially for cases of low temperature reason.

* Symptoms of deficiency, excess potassium in plants:

                                                                    Symptoms of potassium deficiency in coffee

                                                               Symptoms of potassium deficiency on oranges

Inadequate: The top of the old leaf is burnt; Lack of weight, most leaves burn and fall off. Trees grow slowly and stunted, stems prone to fall.

If excess: It is difficult to identify, however, when oranges when applying too much potassium left the grapes

2. Assessment of potassium content in soil:

– Total K2O (K2O%): Total Potassium in Soil

Flame photometer method

Very poor: <0.2%

+ Poverty: 0.2 – 0.5%

+ Average: 0.5 – 0.8%

+ Fair: 0.8 – 1.2%

+ Rich:> 1.2%

Potassium exchange (K+): (mg/100 gr), (meq/100gr)

  mg/100gr meq/100 gr
Very poor:  < 4 < 0,1
 Poor: 4 -12  0,1 – 0,3
Medium: 12 – 20 0,3 – 0.5
Hide:  > 20  > 0,5

3. Types of potassium in the market:

Potassium sources are mainly potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4).

3.1. Potassium chloride (KCl – Sylvit) – MOP (short for Muriate of potash)

(Accounting for about 93% of the total potassium in the world)

                                                                   Types of potassium chloride on the market

Feces are in the form of pink powder like chili salts. Farmers in some places called chili pepper. There is also a form of potassium chloride that is opalescent gray or grayish white. Feces are

crystallized into small particles. The concentration of pure potassium in the stool is 50 – 60% (K2O).

3.2. Kali Sunphat (K2SO4) – Potassium Sulphate

Potassium content: 45 – 50%.

Sulfur: 18%.

This fertilizer can be used for a variety of crops. Highly effective for oily crops, vegetables, tobacco, tea, coffee.

Potassium sulphate is a sour biological fertilizer. Long use on bare soil can increase the acidity of the soil. Do not use potassium sulphate continuously for many years on acid soils, as the stool can increase the acidity of the soil.

3.3. Potassium carbonate (K2CO3 – Potash) – Potassium carbonate

* Overview of potassium

+ All potassium fertilizer of 700 thousand tons must be imported because Vietnam has no potassium.

+ Worldwide, only 15 countries have large scale potash production, mainly in Europe, the Americas and the Middle East.

International trade with potassium worldwide is dominated by six major producing countries: Canada, Russia, Belarus, Germany, Israel and Jordan.

+ Potash output in the world is about 55 million tons, in which Canadian potash is one third

+ KCl fertilizers are prepared from Sylvinite, Sylvit, Carnalite, Kainite, Hanksite …

Great mines in the world are concentrated in Canada, England, Germany, America, Thailand.

4. Types of ores containing potassium:

4.1. Sylvit ore

                                                                                   (KCl) 63,1 % K2O

4.2. Carnalite ore

                                                                               (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O) 17% K2O

4.3. Sylvinite ore

                                                                                     KCl.NaCl 28% K2O

5. Technology to produce potassium chloride (KCl)



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