Bo (B) – Boron

Cultivars are mainly B4O27-, HBO32- and BO33-.
Bo forms in soil:
– H3BO3 in solution
– Free from the main mineral: Tourmaline
– pH dependent activity
– Dry areas, Bo accumulated into alkaline borates (Sodium Borates – Borax)
– Dry areas, plants can be poisoned Bo. The more serious the irrigation water has high Bo content.
– adsorbed on mineral oxides
New liming can reduce the activity of Bo due to the formation of new surfaces of Bo mineralization oxide
– Create complex with organic matter
– Interactions: Ca and K can reduce the usefulness of Bo

1. The effect of Bo on the following biochemical physiological processes:

Nutrient uptake and N fixation, CO2 reduction and chlorophyll activation during photosynthesis, chlorophyll synthesis and growth regulator synthesis, evapotranspiration associated with transport of the substance in the plant, the metabolism of the substance, the formation of young roots, especially the formation of pollen and the result, drought tolerance and cold tolerance, heat resistance of plants.
– Reproduction, new cell growth in the top of the growth
– Deformation at the top of the body
– Pollen & seed formation
– Need for growth of pollen
– Fruit development
– Can affect the transport of sugar
– Deformation fruit
It affects the formation of many groups of substances: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, pigments, vitamins and auxin.

Missing B:

– The soil is rough and the soil grows on granite

– Popular on grapes, fruit trees, legumes.

Expression of Bo deficiency:

                                                                 Burning the tail of the leaf due to lack of Bo

Missing young leaves at the shoots of discolored and weakened beginning from the bottom, shoots to death

Lack of Bo, thick leaves, sometimes bent up and brittle, stunted plants, prone to death dry growth peak, stunted little bud roots, flowers are vulnerable to fall, not fragrant and fast.

Bo is thought to play a catalytic role in the synthesis of cell wall precursors so that anthrax is more likely to occur in tubers. The inner tissues of rotten tubs form black or brown areas. It is hollow and intestinal disease often found in radish, carrots.

                                                                            Burning the tail – deformed fruit

The lack of Bo also noted that in some fruit trees have irregular lengths, rough fruits and plastic discharge at the stem.

Bo also affects legumes that increase N fixation, increasing the water uptake of legumes. Research results in Russia also show that Bo deficiency also reduced RNA levels at the top of the tree and root peaks, legumes, and decreased DNA in sunflowers. This effect also disrupts plant metabolism.

– Phenomenon deficiency is more commonly associated with plants than with soil.

– Plants with very high boron requirements can be listed as follows: poppy, white radish, lettuce, purple radish, sultana, cabbage, 100g dry matter.

– Plants with average carotenoids, potatoes, tobacco, white beans, tomatoes, celery.

                                                  Grapefruit has only one fruit of normal size in the ball

                                                                      The lack of Bo killed the head of the stigma

                                                                                  The body burns short

                                                            Lack of Bo 2 burning between short, light green like body shrink

– Trees, rice, corn need the lowest level Bo

Apply as much protein and potassium as the Bo boost, but P fertilizer needs reduction. However, it is recognized that Bo fertilizers increase the efficiency of phosphate in the market, so it is usually the type of phosphate containing Bo. This approach has two advantages: increased phosphate efficiency and increased ability to use Bo trees.

Bo poisoning:

– Occurs when the soil is salty

Expression of plant poisoned Bo

Symptoms of Bo poisoning

Burning leaves, usually at the ends of veins. Black leaf can turn black and may be mixed with salt poisoning

Plants are often very sensitive. Pay attention to plants with high demand, and plants tolerant to high concentrations of Bo.

However, it should be noted that excessive application of Bo also causes botulism. The appropriate dosage for this plant will not be suitable for other plants.

The first stage of Bo poisoning usually appears as a yellowing of the leaf or spots. In severe cases, gum spots appear on the lower leaf surface with early leaves. Severe symptoms may include spiked stems.

                                                                 Grape leaves have manifested Bo poisoning

                                   Necrotic at the leaf edge, leaves are drooping and turn yellow orange due to excessive Bo poisoning

High content of water in irrigation or in soil may be a problem for citrus development. In cases where soil and water resources are high in Bo, we need to irrigate and improve the drainage system to control the problem.

Different stem and shoots differ in their sensitivity to boron toxicity. Lemon is the most sensitive, followed by tangerines, grapefruits and oranges.

Bo in the soil

The amount of soil lost in the soil is very large: 100 – 200 g/ha/yr due to wash, 50 – 300 g/ha due to the harvested product (according to Gros in France). The number of tropical countries lost more.

Bo content in the soil is quite high: 0.5 -10 mg/1kg of dry matter, in which easily digestible Bo number accounts for 1 – 10% total Bo. The amount of easily digested Bo usually varies with pH. Therefore, only Bo deficiency occurs in two cases:

– Soil or soil sown too much fertilizer.

– Long – term arable land is washed away and degenerated.

Spray Bo through the leaves

Boost Bo content in sleeping sprouts.

Very effective in B deficiency symptoms in fruits.

The leaves are well tolerated with high Bo.

Spray B before and during flowering

For safety, spray 1/2kg B/ha each time

Only limited part of B deficiency symptoms on fruit

2. Compounds that contain Bo can be used as fertilizer for crops and soil.

2.1 Boric acid

Chemical formula: H3BO3 or B(OH)3

Bo content: 17.5%

Molecular weight: 61.83 g mol-1

Appearance: White crystalline solid

Melting point: 170.9oC, 4440K, 340oF

Boiling point: 300oC, 5730K, 572oF

Water solubility: 5.7 g/100 mL (250C); 19.10 g/100 mL (800C); 27.53 g/100 mL (1000C)

2.2. Sodium borate (solder)

+ Pentahydrate natritetrabonat (Red Borax) and Sodium Tetraquat Decahydrate (Borax Green)

Sodium tetrabonate decahydrate (Na2B4O7.10H2O) in powder form contains 11.3% B,

+ Pentahydrate natritetrabonat (Na2B4O7.5H2O) in powder and granules containing 14.9% B,

+ Sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7) in powder and pellets containing 20.5 B

2.3. Datolite (2CaO.B2O3.SiO2.H2O) – Minerals are derived from lava

Other Formulation: CaBSiO4(OH)

Ingredient content:

Calcium 25.05% Ca 35.05% CaO

Silicon 17.56% Si 37.56% SiO2

Boron 6.76% B 21.76% B2O3

Hydrogen 0.63% H 5.63% H2O

Oxygen 50.00% O

100.00% 100.00% = TOTAL OXIDE

A water-insoluble compound soluble in citric acid only in the form of pellets

2.4. Colemanite (Ca2B6O11.5H2O)

Ingredient content:

Calcium 19.50% Ca 27.28% CaO

Boron 15.78% B 50.81% B2O3

Hydrogen 2.45% H 21.91% H2O

Oxygen 62.27% O
100.00% 100.00% = TOTAL OXIDE

A water-insoluble compound soluble in citric acid only in the form of pellets

2.5. Ulexite NaCaB5O6(OH)6.5(H2O)

Sodium 5.67% At 7.65% Na2O

Calcium 9.89% Ca 13.84% CaO

Boron 13.34% B 42.95% B2O3

Hydrogen 3.98% H 35.57% H2O

Oxygen 67.12% O

100.00% 100.00% = TOTAL OXIDE

A water-insoluble compound soluble in citric acid only in the form of pellets


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