1. What is Humic Acid? What is Humate ?
Humic: Humic acid is an important component of organic matter in soils formed by the accumulation and degradation of incomplete residues in anaerobic conditions.
The content of humic acid in organic humus depends on geological features, vegetation cover, anaerobic digestion time. Humic acid is one of the three components (humic acid, fulvic acid and humic acid) in the organic humus compound of the soil.
Humic acid is the foundation of all fertile soil. For years, humic acid accumulates in the soil to help the soil increase its ability to retain nutrients, water retention, and as a food source for soil beneficial microorganisms. This is a way to minimize nutrient losses to maintain soil fertility and ensure the sustainable development of nature.
Humate: is a metal salt of humic or fulvic. For example: K-Humate, Na-Humate, Ca-Humate, Mg-Humate …, each type of Humate salt contains different metals have different characteristics.
The most commonly used humate salt in commercial agriculture is potassium hydroxide. Generally, potassium hydroxide is produced by adding KOH to water containing humic acid.
RCOO-H (humic acid) + KOH = RCOO-K (Kali Humate) + H2O
Black insoluble in water -> Blackish brown soluble in water
+ Ammonium salt is also used in agriculture: Ammonia is used to activate peat, by peat mixed with 2 – 3% ammonia water and then incubated for about 5 to 6 hours is likely reaction. out completely.
2. Ingredients and composition of Humic Acid:
+ Humic acid composition
+ The elemental composition of the humic acid consists mainly of C, H, O, N. The content of these elements varies depending on the soil type, chemical composition of the living organism, humus conditions: C 56.2% – 61.9%; H: 3.4% – 4.8%; A: 29.5% – 34.8%; N: 3.5% – 4.7%.
+ Molecular Weight of Humic Acid
Under different conditions, the origin and the mode of humic acid formation are different, humic acid has no fixed formula and molecular weight. Many studies indicate that the molecular weight of humic acid can range from 400 to 100.000, with an average of 50,000 to 90,000 carbon units.
+ Structure of humic acid, chemical formula of humic acid
The typical structure of humic acid (containing ingredients such as quinones, phenols, catechol and single sugars) and Humic Acid Powder
Humic acid is not a single structure that consists of multiple structural networks. Each network structure consists of several structural units. Structural units are the molecules of humic acid that form when they are decomposed and have a relatively simple structure. The structural network is a section of the humic acid molecule that contains all the structural units, formulas and dimensions of these types when decomposing humic acid with benzolcarbon as follows:
Formula and molecular weight of unit and haul network of some soil types
|Type of land||Structural unit||Network structure|
|Recipe||Molecular amount||Recipe||Molecular amount|
3. Physical and chemical properties of humic acid, humate:
– The humic acid dissolves well in dilute alkaline solutions of NaOH, Na2CO3, Na4P2O7.10H2O … Depending on the concentration and type of soil, the resulting solutions are cherry colored to black. Humic acid insoluble in water and inorganic acids.
– Salt of humic acid (Humate) completely in water, solution yellowish brown to dark brown.
4.Application of humic acid to soil with plants:
– All sandy soils have an open structure (ventilation) so they can be easily drained and drained. This open structure and the free soil permeability of sandy soils also allow most of the nutrients in the fertilizer to be used to easily penetrate the ground.
– Surface of sand particles hard to hold water and nutrients. As a result, the nutrients are drained into the groundwater and the plants can not be absorbed. The nutrients lost due to such leaching have caused great economic harm to the growers and are detrimental to the environment.
– The fertile soil always has a very high organic content. This amount of organic matter makes most types of soil capable of retaining and producing the nutrients necessary for plants.
– The high-value organic substances for such crops are abundant in the humic acid salts of the carboxylic acid group and the chitosan chemical. It is these negatively charged molecules that are capable of retaining all the nutrients in the fertilizer. Salts of humic acid also have the ability to hold water as well as organic matter.
The most important effect of humic acid is its ability to retain water: Due to the great electrical charge on the surface and on the surface, humic acts as a water-absorbing sponge. These sponges are capable of retaining water 7 times more than topsoil.
– Keep nutrients in the chelate structure, increase the absorption of nutrients in the soil of plants, minimize the amount of soil mineral nutrients:
+ Humic acid keeps large amounts of nutrients from the fertilizer (into the humate form) until the plants are ready to use them.
Humic acid is very effective in creating rings with more nutrients and, more importantly, in water retention
Humic acid helps break the link between nutrients in the soil, making it easier for plants to absorb.
RCOO-H (Humic Acid) + Nutrition = RCOO-Humate + H +
Root + RCOO – Nutrition (Humate) = Root – Nutrition + RCOOH (Humic Acid)
Humic acid present in the soil holds a large amount of micronutrients and polysaccharides around the roots to provide all the nutrients needed for quick absorption by the roots and helps the plant to grow optimally. Humic acid also improves moisture and water retention. Helping farmers and growers achieve greater crop yields through more efficient use of fertilizers and sustainability of long term soil fertility.
Other noted important effects of humic acid on plants:
+ Speed up the process of germination
+ Improve plant roots
+ Make food useful bacteria in the soil
+ Improve plant physiology
+ Reduce excess salinity in the soil
+ Improve soil nutrient retention
+ Reduces environmental stress (pH stabilizer stabilizer)
+ Increasing the resistance of trees to pests and adverse conditions such as heat, cold, drought, acid, etc.
In addition, if they are directly absorbed through the leaves, they will enhance the photosynthesis of plants by stimulating the activity of enzymes involved in photosynthesis.
5. The sources of humic acid:
5.1. Mining from peat mines in Viet nam:
– In our country, many peat mines have been discovered and explored, of which the Mekong River Delta has explored 8 peat mines (in Ca Mau, Kien Giang, Hau Giang and Long An provinces) with a reserve of about 500 million m3. Peat in these mines is of good quality, humus contents average 40-50%, humic acid 20-30% and many other nutrients.
– Typical peat mines in Vietnam:
+ Typical peat mines in the Southern Delta: peat cliffs in ancient coastal areas, Phu Cuong – Tan Hoa peat mine, Binh Son peat mine, U Minh peat mine, Ba Gio Peat, Peat Peat, Peat Peat, Old River Peat, Lang Le Coal Mine, Tan Lap Peat Mine, Lung Lom Peat Coal Mine, Dong Binh Peat Coal Mine.
+ Typical peat mines in the Central Coastal Plain: Old peat muddy peat, Phong Nguyen peat mine, Binh Phu peat mine, Bau Bang peat mine. Hao Son Peat Mine …
Peat mines in the mountains and highlands: peat mines in Lam Dong, Lam Ha peat mines, peat mines Da Klou Kia, Kim Le, Anling, Labbed Nord, Da Thien, Peat mines in Dak Lak province …
5.2. Import Humic Acid Products, Humate from USA, Russia, China and some other countries:
+ Humic Acid, Fulvic 70% USA:
Humic acid and Fulvic acid imported from USA
Characteristic: Fine black brown powder, insoluble in water, particle size 18 mesh (or pulverized (< 10 microns)
Specification: Purity> = 95%, Humic + Fulvic:> 70%, pH = 10; Humidity <= 5%
Humic Acid 90% USA:
Characteristic: Fine black brown powder, insoluble in water, ultra fine particle size (pulversized <10 microns)
Specifications: Purity> = 95%, Organic> = 95%; Humic:> = 90%, pH = 10; Humidity <= 5%
+ Chinese Humic Acid:
Humic acid imported from China
Humic content:> = 20%,> = 40%,> = 60%.
Characteristic: Fine black powder, insoluble in water.
+ Chinese Sodium Humate:
Characteristic: black powder or granules, water soluble 430 g/L, particle size: 20 – 190 mesh, melting point: 90oC
Ingredients: Purity: 75 – 90%; Humic Acid: 45 – 60%; pH: 8 – 9; humidity <= 5%
How to use humic acid and humate
Use humic acid (Humic Acid)
– Use humic acid (Humic Acid) directly to fertilize the manure, or lining under dung hole of cattle, chicken, cow …, then use mixed manure To switch to microbial composters (Bima, Bio, Lactpower, …) as bio-organic fertilizer for vegetables, fruit trees, organic plants.
– Activation of humic acid with alkaline solution (KOH) to convert potassium to potassium fertilizer for crops.
– Humic acid is applied directly to plants or as inputs in organic fertilizers: sugarcane residue, enamel disintegrant cellulose, deodorizing microorganism, inorganic micronutrient and chelate fusing … mixing, spraying, composting to produce organic fertilizer, organic bio-organic microorganism …
Use Humate (Potassium Humate, Sodium Humate)
– Used as raw materials for fertilizer production of high-grade foliar fertilizers, fertilizer drip irrigation.
– Use the combination of other materials to apply the root or spray on the leaves in the calculation ratio.
Humic spray concentration on leaves is recommended to be 0.03 – 0.05% (300 – 500ppm: 3 – 5gram per 10 liters of water).
Plant object, time of use
– Used for all crops, especially good for fruit trees, industrial plants (coffee, pepper, pineapple …).
– Use when trees are stunted, underdeveloped, plant protection drugs poisoning, nutritional poisoning (fertilizing too much fertilizer), trees damaged or affected by severe weather (cold or or drought).
– Combined with other nutrients (protein, phosphorus, potassium, microcosm) to apply for planting plants of the period of development of stem, leaves, branching, reaching.
– Use in combination with potassium to fertilize plants, fruit trees … in the pre-flowering stage, after the young pods, the time to pick up rice.
Regular use of Humate (Humic) and the right concentration can increase crop yield by 10 – 20% compared to controls, increase quality of agricultural products, increase fruit quality (aromatic, delicious, shiny, beautiful ).